USS Milwaukee (CL-5)
USS Milwaukee (CL-5) was an Omaha class light cruiser that spent most of the Second World War serving in the South Atlantic, before being transferred to the Soviet Union early in 1944. She spent the rest of the war escorting convoys between the US and the Soviet Union, before being returned to American control and scrapped in 1949.
The Milwaukee was laid down on 13 December 1918. She was launched on 24 March 1921, over two years later, and not commissioned until 20 June 1923.
The Milwaukee was equipped with high quality sonic depth finding equipment, which it used during its shakedown cruiser to Australia to map part of the Pacific floor. This cruise took the ship to the Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress at Sydney, which began on 23 August 1923.
The Milwaukee was also responsible for the discovery of the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean. On 14 February 1939, just to the north of Puerto Rico, she recorded a depth of 28,860ft. This spot is known as the 'Milwaukee Depth', and is at least 27,493ft deep.
The Milwaukee's first memorable role was in disaster relief in the Caribbean. In October 1926 a hurricane devastated the Isle of Pines (Isle of Youth since 1978). The Milwaukee and the Goff arrived on 24 October and took part in the relief operation, running a medical centre and providing food supplies.
In 1928 the Milwaukee moved to the Pacific, where she joined CruDiv 2 in the Asiatic Fleet. From 1933 to 1940 she served with CruDiv 3, part of the Battle Fleet. This force had bases on the US west coast and at Pearl Harbor. This was a peacetime posting, although the Milwaukee did take part in a cruiser to Far Eastern waters in 1938 in response to the Japanese attack on the US gunboat Panay in the Yangtze River.
In 1940 the Milwaukee moved back to CruDiv 2, which was mow part of the Neutrality Patrol in the Atlantic. In December 1941 she was in the middle of an overhaul in the New York Navy Yard, but in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor she was quickly back at sea, sailing on 31 December 1941. Her first task was to escort a convoy to the Caribbean. In February she made a brief return to the Pacific, escorting a troop convoy to the Society Islands. She passed back through the Panama Canal on 7 March, and then joined TF31, part of the South Atlantic Patrol Force, based at Recife, Brazil.
For the next two years the Milwaukee was based in the South Atlantic, patrolling an area that stretched from French Guiana down to Rio de Janeiro, and almost across to the African coast. During this period the two main incidents were the saving of the merchant ship Commandante Lyra and the destruction of the German blockade runner Annaliese Essenberger.
The Commandante Lyra was torpedoed by a U-boat in mid May 1942 between Ascension Island and Brazil. The Milwaukee responded to her distress signals. She rescued 25 survivors (another 16 were picked up by the destroyer Moffett (DD-362). Her sister ship Omaha also arrived on the scene, and began to bring the fires under control. Eventually a small American flotilla saved the ship, which was towed to Fortaleza, Brazil.
On 21 November 1942 the Milwaukee, Cincinnati (CL-6) and Somers (DD-381) encountered a merchant ship that claimed to be the Norwegian freighter Sjhflbred. The ship failed to respond to the secret identification signal, so the cruisers covered the Somers which she attempted to intercept her. The ship was actually the German blockade runner Annaliese Essenberger. As the Somers approached the blockade runner's crew abandoned ship and set off scuttling charges. The ship quickly sank. Milwaukee rescued 62 of the crew.
After the surrender of the Italian fleet the Allies agreed to split up the newly captured ships, but it proved difficult to provide all of the ships promised to the Soviet Union. It was decided to loan her the Milwaukee in place of one of the promised Italian ships.
On 8 February 1944 the Milwaukee left Bahia, Brazil and sailed to New York. From there she escorted a convoy which reached Belfast on 8 March. She then escorted Convoy JW58 to Murmansk, setting sail on 29 March 1944. This convoy was shadowed by German aircraft and persistently attacked by U-boats, but the convoy screen held out. No merchant ships were lost and three U-boats were sunk during the convoy battle. The Milwaukee was handed over to the Soviet Navy on 20 April 1944 at Kola Inlet. In Soviet service she was named the Murmansk and was used on to escort convoys travelling between the United States and the Soviet Union.
A total of fifteen American warships were eventually returned by the Soviets. The Milwaukee was the first of these, and was handed back on 16 March 1949. By this date she was obsolete, and on 10 December 1949 she was sold for scrap.
10,000nm at 10kts (design)
Armour – deck
Armaments (as built)
Twelve 6in/53 guns
13 December 1918
24 March 1921
20 June 1923
Videos/Pics: Navy sets off a massive explosion next to its newest aircraft carrier
On Friday, the U.S. Navy set off a massive explosion in the Atlantic Ocean right next to its new advanced aircraft carrier, USS Gerald R. Ford.
The massive underwater explosive was detonated as part of the ship’s first Full Ship Shock Trials (FSST), which are meant to simulate battle conditions and ensure that the new aircraft carrier can withstand the shockwave of a nearby enemy attack.
The Navy announced the tests and said they were “conducting the shock trial testing in accordance with Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Instruction 9072.2, and as mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act of 2016.”
The Navy has conducted similar shock tests with other new ship models in the past. The most recent ship shock trials were conducted in 2016 against the Littoral Combat Ships USS Jackson (LCS 6) and USS Milwaukee (LCS 5). The San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS Mesa Verde (LPD 19) was similarly tested in 2008, as was the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp (LHD 1) in 1990, and the guided-missile cruiser USS Mobile Bay (CG 53) in 1987.
The aircraft carrier USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78) completes the first scheduled explosive event of Full Ship Shock Trials while underway in the Atlantic Ocean, June 18, 2021. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communications Specialist Seaman Jackson Adkins)
The USS Gerald R. Ford, the first of the advanced new Ford-class aircraft carriers, is the first U.S. aircraft carrier to undergo these shock trials since 1987 when Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) was tested.
The Navy said its latest trials were conducted off the East Coast of the United States inside a narrow time frame to comply with environmental mitigation requirements and respect the known migration patterns of marine life in the test area.
The aircraft carrier USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78) completes the first scheduled explosive event of Full Ship Shock Trials while underway in the Atlantic Ocean, June 18, 2021. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Riley B. McDowell)
The Navy also employed extensive protocols throughout ship shock trials to ensure the safety of participating military and civilian personnel in the testing area.
The trials for the USS Gerald R. Ford come after the ship completed an 18-month Post Delivery Test & Trials period in April. During that 18-month trial period, the crew completed all required testing and accomplished planned improvements and maintenance ahead of schedule while the aircraft carrier served as the sole East Coast platform for conducting carrier qualifications.
Milwaukee was 550 feet (170 m) long at the waterline and 555 feet 6 inches (169.3 m) long overall, with a beam of 55 feet 4 inches (16.9 m) and a mean draft of 13 feet 6 inches (4.1 m) . Her standard displacement was 7,050 long tons (7,160 t) and 9,150 long tons (9,300 t) at full load.  Her crew consisted of 29 officers and 429 enlisted men.  The ship was fitted with a powerful echo sounder. 
The ship was powered by four Westinghouse geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam generated by 12 Yarrow boilers.  The engines were rated at 90,000 indicated horsepower (67,000 kW) and designed to reach a top speed of 35 knots (65 km/h 40 mph) . At deep load she carried 1,852 long tons (1,882 t) of fuel oil that provided her a range of 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km 7,500 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h 12 mph) . 
Milwaukee mounted a dozen 53-caliber 6-inch (152 mm) guns four in two twin gun turrets and eight in tiered casemates fore and aft.  Her secondary armament initially consisted of two 50-caliber 3-inch (76 mm) anti-aircraft (AA) guns in single mounts, but this was doubled to four guns during construction. Milwaukee was initially built with the capacity to carry 224 mines, but these were removed early in her career to make more space for crew accommodations.  The ship carried above-water two triple and two twin torpedo tube mounts for 21-inch (533 mm) torpedoes. The triple mounts were fitted on the upper deck, aft of the aircraft catapults, and the twin mounts were one deck lower, covered by hatches in the side of the hull. These lower mounts proved to be very wet and were removed, and the openings plated over, before the start of World War II. Another change made before the war was to increase the 3-inch (76 mm) guns to four, all mounted in the ship's waist. 
The ship lacked a full-length waterline armor belt. The sides of her boiler and engine rooms and steering gear were protected by 3 inches (76 mm) of armor. The transverse bulkheads at the end of her machinery rooms were 1.5 inches (38 mm) thick forward and three inches thick aft. The deck over the machinery spaces and steering gear had a thickness of 1.5 inches. The gun turrets were only protected against muzzle blast and the conning tower had 1.5 inches of armor.  Milwaukee carried two floatplanes aboard that were stored on the two catapults. Initially these were probably Vought VE-9s, but the ship operated Curtiss SOC Seagulls from 1935 and Vought OS2U Kingfishers after 1940. 
After 1940 the lower aft six-inch guns were removed and the casemates plated over. The ship's anti-aircraft armament was augmented by two quadruple 1.1-inch gun mounts by early 1942, although these were replaced by twin Bofors 40 mm gun mounts later in the war. At about the same time, Milwaukee received eight Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. 
USS Milwaukee (CL-5) - History
(CL-5 : dp. 7,050, 1. 555'6" b. 55'4" , dr. 13'6" , s. 34 k.
cpl. 458 a. 12 6" 4 3' 10 21" tt. cl. Omaha)
5) was laid down 13 December 1918 by Seattle Construction & Dry Dock Co., Seattle Wash., launched by Todd Dry Dock & Construction Co. Seattle, Wash., 24 March 1921 sponsored by Mrs. Rudolph Pfeil and commissioned 20 June 1923, Capt. William a Anderson in command.
Shakedown took the new cruiser to Australia via Hawaii, Somoa, Fiji Islands, and New Caledonia, for the Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress which opened in Sydney 23 August 1923. Fitted with the finest sonic depth-finding equipment, Mlilwaukee gathered knowledge of the Pacific en route.
Although she served primarily in the Pacific during the decades between the world wars, the highlights of her peacetime service came in the Caribtan. On 24 October 1926, Milwaukee and Goff arrived at the Isle of Pines from Guantanamo Bay to assist victims of a fierce hurricane which had devasta,ted the island 4 days before. The American ships established a medical center at the city hall in Nueva Crone, furnished the stricken area over 50 tons of food, replaced telephone lines which had been swept away, and maintained wireless communication with the outside world. The efficient and tireless labors of the crews won the respect and gratitude of everyone in the area.
Over a decade later while steaming north of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico 14 February 1939 Milwaukee recorded the greatest depth yet discovered in the Atlantic, 5,041 fathoms, or 30,246 feet. The spot has thenceforth been designated "Milwaukee Depth."
Totalitarianism was then threatening to shatter world peace and to snuff out freedom. Over a year before, Japanese military hotheads had bombed U.S. gunboat Panay in the Yangtze River near Hankow, China, 12 December 1937, testing American determination to remain in the Orient Milwaukee, as part of the U.S. Navy's response to the challenge, got underway from San Diego 3 January 1938 on a cruise to the Far East, which took her to Hawaii Samoa, Australia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Guam. As tension abated she returned home 27 April.
The new breed of dictators needed a more forceful lesson. Late in the summer of 1939, Hitler invaded Poland plunging Europe into war. Somewhat over 2 years later Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, drawing the United States into the conflict.
Milwaukee, Capt. Forest B. Royal, was in New York Navy Yard for overhaul when Japan struck. Departing New York 31 December 1941, Milwaukee escorted a convoy to the Caribbean and arrived Balboa 31 January 1942, transited the Panama Canal, and escorted eight troop transports to the Society Islands. Returning to the Atlantic through the canal 7 March, she stopped at Trinidad en route to Recife, Brazil, where she joined the South Atlantic Patrol Force.
For the next 2 years Milwaukee made repeated patrols from ports of Brazil, steaming from the border of French Guiana, down to Rio de Janeiro, and across the Atlantic Narrows almost to the African coast. On 19 May 1942,
while steaming from Ascension Island toward Brazil she received SOS signals from SS Commandante Lyra and sped to the assistance of the Brazilian merchantman, torpedoed by a German U-boat off the coast of Brazil. On reaching the scene that morning,Milwaukee found Commandante Lyra ,abandoned, burning forward and aft, and listing to port.
Destroyer Moffett (DD-362) picked up 16 survivors and Milwaukee rescued 25 others, including the ship's master. Cruiser Omaha (CL-4) and destroyer McDougal (DD368) were soon on the rescue scene. While Milwaukee refueled at Recife, Onza)'a's salvage party jettisoned deck cargo and ready ammunition for deck guns from the burning Brazilian merchantman. Milwaukee immediately returned to the scene. Her salvage party jettisoned cargo, to lighten the Brazilian. The fires were brought under control as Commandante Lyra was towed towards Fortaleza, Brazil, arriving 24 May.
Milwaukee put out of Recife 8 November 1942 in company with cruiser Cincinnati (CL
6) and destroyer Somers (DD-381) seeking German blockade runners. On 21 November 1942 the task force encountered a strange ship which turned out to be the German blockade runner .Annalicse Essenberger. Milwaukee challenged the unidentifled ship who replied with the call letters L-J-P-Y, the international call of Norwegian freighter Sjhflbred. The Allied secret identification signal brought no reply. The two American cruisers maneuvered to cover destroyer Somers chasing the enemy into a small rain squall. At 0651, when Homers had closed to 4 miles, smoke and flames poured from the enemy who lowered boats. Minutes later the first of three tremendous explosions hurled wreckage hundreds of feet in the air and the freighter settled by the stern. Then the Norwegian flag was hauled down and the German merchant swastika flag was raised at the main. The German motorship heeled over to port and sank by the stern. Milwaukee took aboard 62 prisoners from four life rafts.
On the morning of 2 May 1943 while Milwaukee was under repairs at Recife, her crew showed great initiative and skill fighting a fire on tanker SS Livingston Roc which threatened the harbor.
Milwaukee continued her South Atlantic patrols until 8 February 1944 when she departed Bahia, Brazil, for the New York Navy Yard. She stood out from New York 27 February as a unit of the ocean escort for a convoy which reached Belfast, Northern Ireland, 8 March 1944. On 20 March 1944 Milwaukee put to sea, en route to Murmansk, Russia, with British Convoy JW58. A German submarine was sunk during the night. The following day enemy planes shadowing the convoy were shot down by fighter planes launched from HMS Activity. A Wolfpack of German submarines tried to penetrate the convoy screen during the night of 31 March 1944 but was driven off. The following night seven German submarines shadowed the e convoy but they, too, were driven off with the possible loss of one enemy .submarine. That morning carrier-based planes reported sinking a German submarine 10 miles astern.
On 4 April four escorts of the Russian Navy joined the convoy POW headed for Archangel. A few hours later Milwaukee left the convoy and headed for Kola Inlet. There on 20 April 1944 the ship was transferred on loan to the Soviet Union under lend-lease. She commissioned in the Russian Navy as Murmansk and performed convoy and patrol duty along the Atlantic sealanes throughout the remainder of the war. Transferred back to the United States 16 March 1940, Milwaukee, the first of 15 American warships returned by Russia, entered Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 18 March 1949, and was sold for scrapping 10 December 1949 to the American Shipbreakers, Inc., Wilmington, Del.
Here at LSOZI, we take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1833-1954 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places.- Christopher Eger
Warship Wednesday, March 3, 2021: Crossing the Delaware to See the World
Boston Public Library Leslie Jones Collection
Here we see the Old Glory flying from the stern of the four-piper Omaha-class light (scout) cruiser, USS Trenton (CL-11) as she sits in dry dock at South Boston’s Charleston Navy Yard, 6 December 1931. Note the narrow destroyer-like beam, her four screws, and the curious arrangement of stacked 6-inch guns over her stern. She would specialize in waving that flag around the globe
The Omaha class
With the country no doubt headed into the Great War at some point, Asst. Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt helped push a plan by the brass to add 10 fast “scout cruisers” to help screen the battle line from the enemy while acting as the over-the-horizon greyhound of the squadron, looking for said enemy to vector the fleet to destroy.
As such, speed was a premium for these dagger-like ships (they had a length-to-beam ratio of 10:1), and as such these cruisers were given a full dozen Yarrow boilers pushing geared turbines to 90,000 shp across four screws. Tipping the scales at 7,050 tons, they had more power on tap than an 8,000-ton 1970s Spruance-class destroyer (with four GE LM2500s giving 80,000 shp). This allowed the new cruiser class to jet about at 35 knots, which is fast today, and was on fire in 1915 when they were designed. As such, they were a full 11-knots faster than the smaller Chester-class scout cruisers they were to augment.
The Artist’s conception of the final class design, made circa the early 1920s by Frank Muller. Ships of this class were: OMAHA (CL-4), MILWAUKEE (CL-5), CINCINNATI (CL-6), RALEIGH (CL-7), DETROIT (CL-8), RICHMOND (CL-9), CONCORD (CL-10), TRENTON (CL-11), MARBLEHEAD (CL-12), and MEMPHIS (CL-13).Catalog #: NH 43051
For armament, they had a dozen 6″/53 Mk12 guns arranged in a twin turret forward, another twin turret aft, and eight guns in Great White Fleet throwback above-deck stacked twin casemates four forward/four aft. These guns were to equip the never-built South Dakota (BB-49) class battleships and Lexington (CC-1) class battlecruisers, but in the end were just used in the Omahas as well as the Navy’s two large submarine cruisers USS Argonaut (SS-166), Narwhal (SS-167), and Nautilus (SS-168).
Besides the curious 6-inchers, they also carried two 3″/50s DP guns in open mounts, six 21-inch torpedo tubes on deck, another four hull-mounted torpedo tubes near the waterline (though they proved very wet and were deleted before 1933), and the capability to carry several hundred sea mines.
Mines on an Omaha class (CL 4-13) light cruiser Description: Taken while the ship was underway at sea, looking aft, showing the very wet conditions that were typical on these cruisers’ after decks when they were operating in a seaway. Photographed circa 1923-1925, before the addition of a deckhouse just forward of the ships’ after twin six-inch gun mount. Donation of Ronald W. Compton, from the collection of his grandfather, Chief Machinist’s Mate William C. Carlson, USN. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Catalog #: NH 99637
Triple 21-inch torpedo tubes on the upper deck of an Omaha (CL 4-13) class light cruiser, circa the mid-1920s. The after end of the ship’s starboard catapult is visible at the left. Donation of Ronald W. Compton, from the collection of his grandfather, Chief Machinist’s Mate William C. Carlson, USN. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Catalog #: NH 99639
The subject of our tale was the second U.S. Navy warship named for the New Jersey city famous for the small but pivotal Christmas 1776 battle after Washington crossed the Delaware. The first to blaze that trail on the Naval List was a steam frigate commissioned in 1877 and wrecked by a hurricane in Samoa in 1889.
USS Trenton (1877-1889) Making Sail, probably while in New York Harbor in the mid-1880s. The original print is a letterpress reproduction of a photograph by E.H. Hart, 1162 Broadway, New York City, published circa the 1880s by the Photo-Gravure Company, New York. NH 2909
Authorized in 1916, the new USS Trenton wasn’t laid down at William Cramp & Sons in Philadelphia until August 1920, finally commissioned on 19 April 1924.
Her four-month shakedown cruise ran some 25,000 miles, taking the shiny new cruiser as far as Persia before popping in at the choicest ports in the Mediterranean, circumnavigating the continent of Africa in the process, and ending at the Washington Naval Yard.
USS Trenton (CL-11) photographed circa the mid-1920s. NH 43751
Before her freshman year was up, two of her plankowners would earn rare peacetime Medals of Honor– posthumously.
While Trenton carried out gunnery drills about 40 miles off the Virginia capes on 24 October 1924, powder bags in her forward turret exploded, killing or injuring every man of the gun crew. The explosion erupted with such force that it thrust open the rear steel door and blew five men overboard, one of whom, SN William A. Walker, drowned. During the ensuing fire, Ens. Henry C. Drexler and BM1c George R. Cholister attempted to dump powder charges into the immersion tank before they detonated but the charges burst, killing Drexler, and fire and fumes overcame Cholister before he could reach his objective, and he died the following day.
After repairs and mourning, Trenton spent the next 15 years enjoying much better luck, busy sailing around the globe, participating in the standard peacetime work of Fleet Problems, exercises, foreign port calls, and the like. During much of this period, she served as a cruiser division flagship. About as hairy as it got during these happy days was putting a landing force ashore in China during unrest, a trip to take Marines from Charleston to Nicaragua in 1928, and responding to a 1930 revolt in Honduras during the Banana Wars.
USS TRENTON (CL-11) Carrying the U.S. secretary of the navy and the president of Haiti pass in review of the U.S. fleet, off Gonaives, Haiti, about 1925. USS ARIZONA (BB-39) is the nearest battleship. NH 73962
USS Trenton (CL-11) Flagship of Commander Light Cruiser Divisions, Scouting Fleet, underway at sea in April 1927. She has the Assistant Secretary of the Navy on board. NH 94168
USS Trenton in dry dock, South Boston, Dec 6, 1931, Boston Public Library Leslie Jones Collection.
Another of Leslie Jones’ superb shots, note her weapon layout.
A great view of her rudder and screws from the same collection.
And a bow-on shot, sure to be a hit with fans of dry docks. The slim profile of the Omahas is in good display here.
USS TRENTON (CL-11) In Pearl Harbor during the later 1930s. Color tinted photo, reproduced by the ship’s service store, Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, circa 1938. Collection of Rear Admiral Frank A. Braisted, USN ret., who was TRENTON’s commanding officer in 1937-38 NH 91636-KN
USS TRENTON (CL-11) in San Diego Harbor on 17 March 1934. NH 64630
USS TRENTON (CL-11) view taken at Sydney, N. S. W., in February 1938, during her visit to that port. Note that the ship is “dressed overall” with the Australian flag at the main. Also note French BOUGAINVILLE-class sloop astern. Courtesy of the Oregon Army National Guard, Oregon Military Academy, 1975. NH 82486
View of the commemorative map of the nearly 20,000-mile cruise made from San Diego, U. S. A., to Australia, and back to San Diego, from late 1937 to early 1938. Cruise made by sisterships USS TRENTON (CL-11), USS MILWAUKEE (CL-5), and USS MEMPHIS (CL-13). Courtesy of the Oregon Army National Guard, Oregon Military Academy, 1975. Catalog #: NH 82488
USS TRENTON (CL-11) Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN, served in her as ComCruDiv Two from 9 July to 17 September 1938. He has signed this photo. NH 58114
Fita-Fita Guards handling USS Trenton’s lines at Naval Station, Tutuila, Samoa, March 31, 1938. Ironically, a warship of the same name was destroyed in Samoa in 1889 by Neptune. NARA # 80-CF-7991-2
USS Trenton (CL-11) in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, circa early 1939. Photographed by Tai Sing Loo. Trenton is carrying SOC floatplanes on her catapults. Donation of the Oregon Military Academy, Oregon National Guard, 1975. NH 82489
By June 1939, with the drums of war beating in Europe, our cruiser joined Squadron 40-T, the dedicated task force organized to protect American interests during the Spanish Civil War.
USS TRENTON (CL-11) View taken at Madeira, in the Azores, circa 1939. Note motor launch in the foreground. Courtesy of the Oregon Army National Guard, Oregon Military Academy, 1975. NH 82487
She was swinging at anchor in the idyllic French Riviera port of Villefranche-sur-Mer when Hitler marched into Poland in September.
Squadron 40-T, view taken at Villefranche-Sur-Mer, France, circa 1939, showing USS TRENTON (CL-11) and an unidentified U.S. “Four-pipe” destroyer in Harbor. NH 82493
Over the next 10 months, she would spend much of her time in neutral Portuguese waters awaiting orders, typically as squadron flagship with an admiral aboard. When finally recalled home in July 1940, following the collapse of the Low Countries to the German Blitzkrieg, Trenton carried exiled Luxembourger royals to America at the behest of the State Department.
Switching Europe for Asia, Trenton was ordered to the Pacific in November, and she was soon busy escorting transports carrying men and equipment to the Philippines with stops at scattered outposts such as Midway, Wake Island, and Guam, all of which would soon become battlegrounds.
By the time the balloon went up on 7 December 1941, our cruiser was moored at Balboa in the Panama Canal Zone, where she had been assigned on orders of ADM Stark to be ready to prowl the Eastern Pacific for enemy shipping and commerce raiders in the event of a real-live war.
Her first mission of WWII was to escort the joint Army-Navy Bobcat Force (Task Force 5614) to the French colony of Bora Bora in late January 1942, an operation that saw the first use of the Navy’s new Seabee units.
U.S. Navy ships in Teavanui Harbor in February 1942. The town of Vaitape is in the left-center. The cruiser and destroyer on the right are USS Trenton (CL-11) with four smokestacks, and USS Sampson (DD-394). An oiler is in the center distance. #: 80-G-K-1117.
While fast and with long legs, the Omaha class cruisers were under-armed and under-armored for 1940s fleet actions, a role that relegated them to the periphery of the conflict. As noted by Richard Worth in his Fleets of World War II:
The fleet sought a way to turn the Omahas into something valuable. Proposals included a conversion to carrier-cruiser hybrids or a complete reconstruction into aircraft carriers. A more realistic plan would have specialized the ships as AA escorts, retaining their twin mounts with a new DP battery of seven 5-inch guns, but the navy didn’t bother.
With that, Trenton kicked her heels for most of the war ranging from the Canal Zone to the Straits of Magellan, visiting the west coast ports of South America, the Juan Fernandez Islands, the San Felice chain, the Cocos, and the Galapagos, keeping an eye peeled for Axis vessels which never materialized.
USS TRENTON (CL-11) Underway off Bona Island in the Gulf of Panama, 11 May 1943. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives. Bow view. #: 19-N-44442
Same series, # 19-N-44440. Note, her seaplanes appear to be Kingfishers
In the same series, note the depth charge racks on her stern, something you don’t see a lot of on a cruiser. #: 19-N-44438
Following a two-month refit at Balboa, she shipped North for San Francisco in July 1944, cleared to finally get into the action.
When she left Panama, she had her war paint on.
USS Trenton (CL-11) underway in the Gulf of Panama, 14 July 1944. She is wearing camouflage Measure 33, Design 2f. #: 19-N-68655
USS Trenton (CL-11) in San Francisco Bay, California, 11 August 1944. Note her large SK annetnna atop the mast. The SK was a surface search radar capable of picking up a large airborne target, such as a bomber, at 100nm and a smallish surface contact, for example, a destroyer, at 13nm. She is wearing camouflage Measure 33, Design 2f. # 19-N-91697
Arriving at Adak in the Aleutian Islands on 2 September 1944, she joined the North Pacific Force as a unit of Cruiser Division One. She would soon be running amok in the Japanese Kuriles chain, alongside other members of her class such as sisterships USS Richmond and USS Concord (CL-10), who had, like Trenton, up to that time had spent most of the war in the Southeastern Pacific.
From her Trenton’s official War History, which is online at the National Archives:
Trenton fired her first shots against the enemy on 5 January 1945 in a bombardment of shore installation at Surubachi Wan, Paramushiru. There followed more shore bombardments against Kurabu Zaki, Paramushiru, on 18 February Matsuwa on 15 March and 10 and 11 June. On this last raid, Trenton, along with other units of Task Force 92, made an anti-shipping sweep inside the Kurile chain during daylight hours of 11 June before firing the second night’s bombardment. Targets on these islands included fish canneries, air strips, and hangars, radar and gun installations, and bivouac areas. Aerial reconnaissance showed substantial damage inflicted in these shellings by Task Force 92.
Trenton’s guns got a heck of a workout during this period. For instance, in the 15 March raid on Matsuwa alone, they fired 457 Mk. 34 high capacity, 18 Mk. 27 common, and 14 Mk. 22 illum shells in a single night. This was accomplished in 99 salvos fired at an average rate of 4.95 salvos per minute, or 22.45 shells per minute. A star shell was set to burst every sixth salvo, providing “excellent illumination,” while the ship used her SG radar to furnish ranges and bearings and Mk 3 radar to check range to the land from fire bearings with correction adjusted accordingly. The firing was done from 13,000 yards and ran for just 21 minutes. Not bad shooting!
The cruiser also helped put some licks in on Japanese surface contacts.
Trenton’s last war-time action occurred 23 to 25 June, when the task force again made an anti-shipping sweep along the central Kuriles. With the force split over a wider area, the other unit made contact with the enemy inside the chain. By sinking five ships out of a small convoy [the auxiliary submarine chasers Cha 73, Cha 206, and Cha 209, and guard boat No. 2 Kusunoki Maru, sunk and the Cha 198 damaged], Task Force 92 disclosed the presence of U.S. Naval Forces in the Sea of Okhotsk and set off a wave of alarm in the Japanese press and radio. Fear of this “formidable task force prowling the northern home waters of Japan,” coupled with the increased attacks by Task Forces 38 and 58 to the south, convinced the Japanese that they were at last surrounded and added to their discouragement which led to the surrender in August.
Steaming for San Francisco to get an overhaul in for the final push on the Home Islands, Trenton was there when the war ended. Ordered to proceed to Philadelphia via the Canal that she spent most of the war protecting, she arrived there just before Christmas 1945 and was decommissioned. Like the rest of her class, there was little use for her in a post-war Navy filled with shiny new and much more capable cruisers, so they were liquidated entirely and without ceremony.
Of her sisters, they proved remarkably lucky, and, though all nine saw combat during the war– including Detroit and Raleigh who were at Pearl Harbor– none were sunk. The last of the class afloat, USS Milwaukee (CL-5) was sold for scrap at the end of 1949, mainly because after 1944 she had been loaned to the Soviets as the Murmansk.
As for Trenton, she was stricken from the Navy List on 21 January 1946 and later sold for $67,228 to the Patapsco Scrap Co. along with sistership Concord, who reportedly fired the last naval bombardment of the war.
Trenton had a string of 15 skippers in her short 21-year career, four of whom would go on to put on admiral’s stars including ADM “Old Dutch” Kalbfus who commanded the battlefleet on the eve of WWII, the long campaigning VADM Joseph Taussig, and ADM Arthur Dewey Struble who led the 7th Fleet during the miracle landings at Inchon.
One of the most tangible remnants of the vessel is the State silver service that she carried for most of her career. Originally made for the first battleship USS New Jersey (BB-16) in 1905 by Tiffany & Co., Trenton became caretaker of the 105-piece set when she was commissioned as the obsolete Virginia class of pre-dreadnought was disposed of as part of the Washington Naval Treaty in 1920. Trenton turned the set back over to the Navy during WWII for safekeeping and it was eventually presented to the Iowa-class battlewagon (BB-62) post-war. Today half the set, which is still owned by the Navy, is at the New Jersey Governor’s Mansion while the other half is on display in a secure case in the captain’s quarters of the Battleship New Jersey museum.
Silver service of USS NEW JERSEY then on USS TRENTON, 1933. NH 740
The Navy has recycled the name “Trenton” twice since 1946. The first for an Austin-class amphibious dock (LPD-14) which served from 1971 through 2007 and is still in service with the Indian Navy as INS Jalashwa (L41), a name which translates roughly into “seahorse.”
An undated file photo of a starboard bow view of the amphibious transport dock ship USS Trenton (LPD 14) underway. Trenton was one of several ships that participated in Operation Praying Mantis, which was launched after the guided-missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) struck an Iranian mine on April 14, 1988. (U.S. Navy photo 30416-N-ZZ999-202 by Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Bates/Released)
The fourth and current Trenton is an MSC-operated Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport (T-EPF-5), in-service since 2015.
1946 Jane’s plan, by which time only Milwaukee was still in service– with the Soviets!
Displacement: 7,050 long tons (7,163 t) (standard) 9,508 full load
Length: 555 ft. 6 in oa, 550 ft. pp
Beam: 55 ft.
Draft: 14 ft. 3 in (mean), 20 feet max
Machinery: 12 × Yarrow boilers, 4 × Westinghouse reduction geared steam turbines, 90,000 ihp
Range: 8460 nm at 10 knots on 2,000 tons fuel oil
Speed: 35 knots estimated design, 33.7 knots on trials
Sensors: SK, 2 x SG, 2 x Mk 3 radars fitted after 1942
Crew: 29 officers 429 enlisted (peacetime)
Belt: 3 in
Deck: 1 1⁄2 in
Conning Tower: 1 1⁄2 in
Bulkheads: 1 1⁄2–3 in
Aircraft carried: 2 × floatplanes (typically Vought O2U-1 then Curtiss SOC Seagulls), 2 amidships catapults
2 × twin 6 in /53 caliber
8 × single 6 in /53 caliber
2 × 3 in /50 caliber guns anti-aircraft
6 × triple 21 in torpedo tubes
4 × twin 21 in torpedo tubes
224 × mines (capability removed soon after completion)
2 × twin 6 in/53 caliber
6 × single 6 in/53 caliber
8 × 3 in/50 caliber anti-aircraft guns
6 × triple 21 in torpedo tubes
3 × twin 40 mm Bofors guns
14 × single 20 mm Oerlikon cannons
If you liked this column, please consider joining the International Naval Research Organization (INRO), Publishers of Warship International
They are possibly one of the best sources of naval study, images, and fellowship you can find. http://www.warship.org/membership.htm
The International Naval Research Organization is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the encouragement of the study of naval vessels and their histories, principally in the era of iron and steel warships (about 1860 to date). Its purpose is to provide information and a means of contact for those interested in warships.
With more than 50 years of scholarship, Warship International, the written tome of the INRO has published hundreds of articles, most of which are unique in their sweep and subject.
USS Milwaukee (AOR 2)
USS MILWAUKEE was the second ship in the WICHITA - class of replenishment oilers. Decommissioned on January 27, 1994, and stricken from the Navy list on April 8, 1997, the MILWAUKEE was subsequently berthed at the James River Reserve Fleet, Fort Eustis, Va., awaiting final disposal. She was sold for scrapping to Bay Bridge Enterprise, Chesapeake, Va., in January 2009.
|General Characteristics:||Awarded: June 2, 1965|
|Keel laid: November 29, 1966|
|Launched: January 1, 1969|
|Commissioned: November 1, 1969|
|Decommissioned: January 27, 1994|
|Builder: General Dynamics, Quincy, Massachusetts|
|Propulsion system: Three boilers, steam turbines, two shafts, 32,000 shaft horsepower|
|Length: 659 feet (200.86 meters)|
|Beam: 96 feet (29.3 meters)|
|Draft: 35 feet (10.7 meters)|
|Displacement: approx. 40,100 tons full load|
|Speed: 20 knots|
|Aircraft: 2 CH-46 Sea Knight Helicopters|
|Armament: two Phalanx CIWS, one Mk-29 Sea Sparrow Missile Launcher|
|Crew: 22 officers, 398 enlisted|
This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS MILWAUKEE. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.
USS Milwaukee (CL-5) - History
For some folks living on the coast, a “minus two-footer” translates into “clam tide.” For Humboldtians with an interest in local history, an extreme low tide like this says one thing: Milwaukee! Here she is, all 10,000 tons of her, at 7 am last week:
Minus 1.9 tide, May 9, 2020. (Barry Evans)
OK, not a whole lot to see, I know. But even less than we saw eight years ago, again at a very low tide:
Minus 2.2 tide, June 5, 2012. (Kathleen Cameron)
It takes a bit of imagination, but what you have to visualize, standing on the Pacific beach a mile south of Samoa, is that you’re just seeing the very tip of the USS cruiser Milwaukee, stranded here on the early morning of January 13, 1917, three months before the US entered WW1.
Rescuers brought crewmen ashore two at a time using a breeches buoy. (US Naval Historical Center, public domain)
I’ve written on the wreck of the Milwaukee previously, so won’t go into a lot of detail here. Briefly, she was trying to extricate H-3, a 350-ton submarine that had beached in heavy fog (no radar or sonar back then) off our coast. Harvey Haislip, the inexperienced skipper of the Milwaukee, ignored the warnings of both the captain of the H-3 and local coastguards, insisting that the strong Pacific tides were no match for his ship and that two additional “anchor” ships would maintain his vessel at a safe distance offshore. His plan—to tow the H-3 back to deep water at high tide—was thwarted when the Milwaukee’s propellers cut the line to one of the two smaller ships, leaving just one inadequate anchor ship, the USS tug Iroquois, to prevent the cruiser from pivoting around on twin half-mile-long hawsers attached to the beached submarine. By dawn on the 13th, the Milwaukee was stuck fast on the sand…
…where she sits today. Not so much on the sand as under it. Every year, for the past 103 years, she has sunk lower and lower, so that now, just the tips of a few bulkheads can be seen at low tide. Judging by the photos above, those will be gone too in a few years.
The kicker to the story is that local construction company Mercer Fraser skidded and rolled the submarine that initiated the rescue attempt on logs three-quarters of a mile across the spit to re-launch her in the calm waters of Humboldt Bay. (Mercer Fraser had proposed to do this before the Milwaukee got into the action, but their low bid for the job—$18,000—was considered unrealistic.) You can read all about it in Ray Hillman’s book (it’s in the library) Shipwrecked at Samoa, California.
It’s easy to find the site: drive a mile-and-a-half south from the west end of the Samoa bridge to the oddly-sited tall rock on the right hand side of New Navy Base Road. You’ll see a plaque with the word “Milwaukee” at its base. Walk down to the beach and you’ll see—at a very low tide—all that remains above the sand. Just remember that there’s a 425-ft. long ship right beneath those few remnants.
Freedom-Class Littoral Combat Ships May Have Serious Gearbox DefectEngine maintenance aboard the USS Freedom during her deployment to Singapore, July 2013 (USN)
Published Dec 16, 2020 8:37 PM by The Maritime Executive
When legislators recently decided to make the U.S. Navy test its next warship's propulsion system on land, they had the problematic history of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program in mind. In a statement first reported by Defense News, the Navy acknowledged that it is investigating a significant drivetrain problem aboard the Freedom-class LCS, which has suffered multiple engineering casualties over a 12-year history in service.
The Freedom-class LCS - a completely different vessel from the Independence-class LCS, an aluminum-hulled trimaran built by a different yard - has repeatedly experienced problems with its combining gears. The engineering plant for the Freedom-class has two parallel CODAG (combined diesel and gas) propulsion systems powering four waterjets. The ship's two combining gears (port and starboard) each combine the input of one diesel engine and one gas turbine - allowing the ship to run economically on its diesels alone, more quickly on turbines alone, or very quickly on both diesels and both turbines at the same time. With a maximum total power of about 115,000 hp (85 MW), this arrangement propels the vessel ahead at speeds of up to 40 knots.
Unfortunately, the Freedom-class CODAG system has encountered issues with reliability. In 2013, the first-in-class USS Freedom sustained three mechanical breakdowns on a transit to Singapore, then several more during her deployment. Modifications were later made to her combining gears in order to "improve maintainability," and the same changes were made for the following vessels in the class.
In 2015, the USS Milwaukee sustained a combining gear failure due to clutch slippage while under way in the Atlantic, one month after she was delivered.
In a 2016 casualty aboard the LCS USS Fort Worth, the engineering crew started up the engines during a dockside test without turning on the lube oil feed for the combining gears, wiping the bearings on both the port and starboard units. The damage stranded the vessel in Singapore for six months.
In November 2020, the Freedom-class LCS USS Detroit sustained a propulsion casualty related to her combining gears while under way. She opted to limp back to her home port at Naval Station Mayport, but during the transit, she lost electrical power as well. A commercial offshore tug took her in tow and brought her to a port of refuge.
After these repeated issues, the U.S. Navy launched a root cause investigation with the gearbox OEM and with Lockheed Martin, the vessel's designer. The results suggest a class-wide problem related to "high speed clutch bearings failing prematurely," the service told Defense News.
&ldquoThe government is investigating a material defect with the combining gear of USS Detroit and USS Little Rock, both Freedom-variant littoral combat ships,&rdquo Naval Sea Systems Command told Defense News in a statement. &ldquoBased upon preliminary assessments, the defect appears to be a design issue that will need to be addressed across the Freedom class. The Navy is taking the final steps to verify this as part of the root cause analysis of the combining gear failures. While this is in progress, measures have been implemented to mitigate risk to all the in-service Freedom variant ships.&rdquo
The first two Freedom-class ships (USS Freedom and USS Fort Worth) are being decommissioned next year as a cost-saving measure. Eight more are currently in service five newbuilds are in various phases of construction and outfitting, and one additional hull is on order.
Due to concerns about their survivability and lethality in combat, procurement plans for both LCS classes have been truncated, and the Fincantieri-designed FFG(X) class frigate is replacing both in future production.
Happy Launch Day SN Murmansk (Actually USS Milwaukee [CL-5), IJN Naka, and IJN Yukikaze
It does sort of wreck on some level that Yukikaze's luck finally ran out in a typhoon, of all things, and right as actual negotiations were happening for her return to Japanese custody as a museum ship. She would've been such an amazing piece of history to preserve, and now she's dust in the wind, same as Warspite, Yavuz, and Enterprise CV-6.
Good summaries as always, Nuke.
That's really bad luck. The only time Yukikaze was unlucky happened to kill her chance to be saved. Unfortunate luck, but still, Yukikaze will live on as Japan's greatest Destroyer in her navy today.
Murmansk is just cute especially with her skin. Just pure huggable. Yukkikaze is the brave (scardy cat) who is lucky. Naka is cute and her swimsuit skin makes her cuter. When will she get a retrofit?
Still not easy for me to like her cause of her being named Murmansk instead of her actual name Milwaukee.
Yukikaze on the other hand is lovable both for her bravado but how despite how proud of her luck she is, she's actually a terrifying ship (USN ships call her the Reaper).
As for Naka a shame she didn't take off as her KC counterpart did, only her sister Jintsuu really did and that was the cause of PVP meta.
Today, March 24th, is the launch day for the lend-lease Northern Parliament shipgirl, SN Murmansk (actually USS Milwaukee [CL-5]), the idol singing sensation of Kancolle, IJN Naka, and the great and lucky miracle ship herself, IJN Yukikaze.
Milwaukee helped with a couple of scientific endeavors in the interwar period. During her shakedown cruise, she visited the Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress on August 23rd, 1923, in Sydney, Australia. They used her new depth-finding equipment to survey the Pacific floor while en route to the Congress. In honor of her aid to the scientific community, in 1929, when Milwaukee surveyed the seamounts of the North Pacific region, they were named "Milwaukee seamounts" in her honor. She also found the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 8,740 m, which is now known as "Milwaukee Deep."
As for military matters, Milwaukee participated in multiple fleet problems in the interwar period. Notable moments include Fleet Problem VI, when she accidentally collided with her sister ship Detroit in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on February 1st, 1926. Neither ship suffered any damage. At Fleet Problem IX, on April 16th, 1930, she was declared knocked out when "Enemy cruisers" attacked her. Three years later, in Fleet Problem XIV, Milwaukee was “sunk” after carrier USS Saratoga spotted her and her cruisers intercepted Milwaukee.
While laid down on June 10th, 1922, due to the severe fire damage Naka suffered from the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, her construction was entirely restarted. She was scrapped and laid down again on May 24th, 1924. A year later, on March 24th, 1925, she was launched.
Naka would undergo modifications to her hull after the Tomorazu and 4th Fleet incidents exposed certain IJN ships' vulnerabilities to rough seas. The modifications came at the cost of her speed.
At the start of her service, Yukikaze achieved notoriety by successfully reversing into dock and getting it right the first time, something not many ships' crews can do right away. This impressed Future Combined Fleet Admiral Jizaburo Ozawa, so he ensured that Yukikaze would receive the latest and greatest upgrades the IJN could provide for her.
Early in the Pacific War, Yukikaze participated in many operations, such as the invasion of the Philippines, where one of her fuel tanks got scratched by American planes strafing. Her excellent captain, Kenjiro Tobita, ensured her safety by making a set of good decisions to avoid the bombing attacks.
Yukikaze was then assigned to the invasion of the Dutch East Indies on January 11th, 1942. On February 20th, she participated in the Battle of the Java Sea, where she joined her comrades in attacking the Allied fleet with torpedoes. Like so many of the IJN ships there, Yukikaze missed all of her torpedo attacks. She would transfer over to New Guinea to assist the invasion force on March 29th, before returning to Japan on May 2nd, 1942.
By January 1941, Milwaukee returned to Cruiser Division 2 and was assigned to the Caribbean Patrol under Rear Admiral Jonas H. Ingram's command, participating in Neutrality patrols after the war began. Cruiser Division 2 was ordered to patrol the Atlantic between Trinidad, the Cape Verde Islands, and Brazil's eastern bulge in April. Although Milwaukee was immediately available, she made a port visit to Recife, Brazil, on June 1st, before returning to San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Milwaukee was commanded by Captain Forrest B. Royal and was undergoing an overhaul at Brooklyn Navy Yard when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th. Milwaukee escorted a convoy to the Caribbean from New York on December 31st and escorted eight troop transports from the Panama Canal to the Society Islands. She rejoined the South Atlantic Patrol Force upon her return and spent the next two years making patrols between Brazil and the African coast.
On May 19th, 1942, she received an SOS from the Brazilian cargo ship SS Comandante Lyra, which had been torpedoed by the Italian submarine Barbarigo off Brazil's coast (it seems Italy sent their subs to the western hemisphere too). Milwaukee found the freighter abandoned and burning, but her crew (including her shipmaster) successfully got on their lifeboats. With the arrival of her sister ship Omaha and destroyer McDougal, they controlled the fires under control. The American ships' crews jettisoned the cargo to help lighten the ship and towed it to Fortaleza, Brazil.
Shortly after, on May 20th, Milwaukee's group was attacked by the same Italian submarine, commanded by Enzo Grossi, who mistook her for an American battleship. All two torpedoes missed, and no American ship even noticed the attack. However, Grossi claimed to have sunk his target. He was promoted to Commander and decorated with the Gold Medal of Military Valour and the Iron Cross. Two subsequent commissions in 1949 and 62 reversed these promotions and decorations.
At the start of WW2, as flagship for the 4th Destroyer Flotilla under Rear Admiral Shoji Nishimura, Naka was engaged in the Philippines Invasion at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack. She helped cover the Imperial Japanese Army’s 48th Infantry Division transports while landing in the Philippines. Naka was slightly damaged by strafing fire from attacks consisting of B-17 Flying Fortresses, P-35 Guardsman, and P-40 Kittyhawk planes of the United States Army Air Force.
In January 1942, Naka and her 4th Destroyer Flotilla escorted the IJA 48th Infantry division to Makassar, Celebes, and Eastern Java alongside the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla. Naka participated in the Battle of Java Sea on February 27th, 1942, alongside Yukikaze. At the start of the battle, Naka and the destroyers launched nearly 100 torpedoes at the opposing Allied force. None of them hit, and overall, of the torpedoes that fired, discounting the friendly fire torpedo hits that Mogami made on the IJA transports, only 4 hit their targets. Still, the IJN got the upper hand over their Allied counterparts and prevailed. Naka was not at the Battle of Sunda Strait to hand in the destruction of the ABDA (American-British-Dutch-Australian) force.
In March 1942, Naka escorted a group of convoys for the invasion of Dutch East Indies. On April 1st, 1942, thanks to a stubborn USS Seawolf (SS-197), Naka was severely damaged from a torpedo hit to her starboard, disabling her and requiring Natori to tow her to Bantam Bay for emergency repairs. The damage was severe enough that Naka was in drydock until April 1943.
Yukikaze was assigned to escort troop transports meant to invade the American-held Midway Island. However, due to the loss of the four IJN Fleet carriers sent to Midway, Yukikaze did not participate in combat.
Afterward, Yukikaze was reassigned to the 3rd Fleet under Destroyer Squadron 10 on July 14th, 1942. On August 5th, Yukikaze escorted the damaged cruiser Mogami along with the repair ship Akashi to Japan.
She then joined the Guadalcanal Campaign in September. At the Battle of Santa Cruz, she played a recon and escort protection role for the Japanese Fleet carriers there on October 12th.
On November 12th, Yukikaze took part in the first night battle of Guadalcanal, where she engaged American destroyers like Laffey and Cushing. However, their flagship, IJN Hiei, received significant damage, and Yukikaze was ordered to tow her back to port for repairs. Continued American air attacks would ensure that Hiei could not make it out without sinking, forcing the IJN to order Yukikaze to help pick up her survivors and scuttle Hiei.
After several months of escorting carriers, Yukikaze made transport runs from Guadalcanal while evacuating IJA troops. On February 10th, 1943, she escorted her damaged sister ship Maikaze to safety. On March 2nd to 3rd, Yukikaze escorted a convoy in the Bismarck Sea. The convoy suffered extensive air attacks from American and Australian air forces. While Yukikaze escaped undamaged, nearly half the escorting destroyers, including Yukikaze's squadmate and sister ship Tokitsukaze, and (more critically) all the transports were sunk.
Yukikaze led the Battle of Kolmbangara with her radar. After the flagship, Jintsuu was sunk by concentrated Allied cruiser fire, Yukikaze quickly rallied the Japanese destroyers and charged at the American cruiser line. Unlike many other destroyer charges, Yukikaze’s succeeded brilliantly. Her torpedoes helped sink the American destroyer Gwin and damaged the American cruisers St. Louis, Honolulu, and the Kiwi cruiser Leander. After snatching victory from the jaws of defeat, Yukikaze emerged unscathed once more.
USS Milwaukee (CL-5) - History
USN Overseas Aircraft Loss List September 1942
To order reports on any of these that were accidents, go to Order Accident Reports
For general notes on using these databases click here
Also see Action Code List for the meaning of Action or USN acronyms page for meaning of general abbreviations.
|9/1/1942||SOC-3||1139||CL-47||USS BOISE (CL-47)|| ||ECENPAC|| || |
|9/1/1942||SBD-1||1622|| || ||MEXICO||CEN AMER||ENS RAY W. GRIMES||D|
|9/2/1942||SBD-3||4584||VS-3||USS SARATOGA (CV-3)||ESPIRITU SANTO||SOPAC||ENS DAVIDSON||S|
|9/2/1942||OS2U-3||5358||VO-4|| || ||ECENPAC||ENS L.A. BEARD||U|
|9/3/1942||OS2U-2||2194||VS-5||BERMUDA (DET 4)||BERMUDA||NORLANT||ENS LAWRENCE A. UTTER||U|
|9/4/1942||SOC-3||1071||CL-47||USS BOISE (CL-47)|| ||ECENPAC|| || |
|9/4/1942||OS2N-1||01342||VO-3||USS IDAHO (BB-42)||SITKA||NORPAC|| || |
|9/5/1942||F4F-4||5074||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT JEFFRIES||D|
|9/5/1942||SO3C-1||4748||CL-56||USS COLUMBIA (CL-56)|| ||CENLANT||ENS G.F. RUSH||U|
|9/5/1942||F4F-4||02076||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/5/1942||F4F-4||5096||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||S/SGT GARRABRANT||M|
|9/5/1942||F4F-4||03399||VF-9||USS RANGER (CV-4)||BERMUDA||NORLANT|| || |
|9/6/1942||SBD-3||03342||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC||LT MCALLISTER||U|
|9/6/1942||SBD-3||03356||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC||MAJ F.L. BROWN||U|
|9/7/1942||PBY-5A||04980||VP-61|| || ||NORPAC|| || |
|9/7/1942||SBD-3||4658||VMSB-241|| || ||SOPAC||CAPT ACERS||S|
|9/7/1942||PBY-5||2376||VP-81|| || ||CENLANT||LT ROBERT W. CUMMINGS||D|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||02082||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT HUGHES||S|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||01993||VGS-9||USS BOGUE (ACV-9)|| ||CENLANT||ENS W.F. CHAMBERLAIN||S|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||02091||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT JEANS||S|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||02079||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT LEES||S|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||5142||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT D'ARCY||S|
|9/8/1942||F4F-4||02106||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT JOHNSON||S|
|9/9/1942||F4F-4||02107||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT J.M. JONES||M|
|9/9/1942||F4F-4||02100||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT MARION R. CARL||S|
|9/9/1942||F4F-4||02099||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT CANFIELD||S|
|9/10/1942||F4F-4||03491||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT POND||M|
|9/10/1942||F4F-3||2516||VMO-251|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/11/1942||F4F-4||02109||VMF-224||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||MAJ R.E. GALER||S|
|9/12/1942||F4F-4||5075||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||ENS CHARLES E. RICHERBERGER||D|
|9/12/1942||F4F-4||03506||VF-10||HAWAII||HAWAII||ECENPAC||ENS E.S. COLSSON||S|
|9/13/1942||F4F-4||04105||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||B.D. HARING||D|
|9/13/1942||F4F-4||03499||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT CHAMBERLAIN||S|
|9/13/1942||F4F-4||5198||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||ENS WILEMAN||D|
|9/13/1942||F4F-4||5100||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT PHILLIPS||S|
|9/13/1942||SBD-3||4608||VS-3||USS SARATOGA (CV-3)||ESPIRITU SANTO||SOPAC||ENS WAGER||M|
|9/13/1942||F4F-4||5084||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||ENS INNIS||S|
|9/14/1942||F4F-4||02093||VMF-223||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||LT TROWBRIDGE||S|
|9/14/1942||SBD-3||4667||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC||LT KAUFMAN||D|
|9/14/1942||OS2U-3||09634|| ||USS ESSEX (CV-9)||SITKA||NORPAC|| || |
|9/14/1942||F4F-4||5066||VF-3||USS YORKTOWN (CV-5)||PEARL||ECENPAC||ENS ROBERT C. EVANS||S|
|9/15/1942||SBD-1||1754||VMSB-234||PEARL||HAWAII||ECENPAC|| || |
|9/15/1942||F4F-4||5205||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/15/1942||F4F-4||5240||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/15/1942||PBO-1|| || ||TRINIDAD|| ||CENLANT|| || |
|9/15/1942||F4F-4||5043||VF-10||HAWAII||HAWAII||ECENPAC||ENS J.L. MCMAHON||S|
|9/15/1942||SBD-3||03337||VS-72||USS WASP (CV-7)||SAN CRISTOBAL||SOPAC||(SHIP SANK)|| |
|9/15/1942||SBD-3||03351||VS-71||USS WASP (CV-7)||SAN CRISTOBAL||SOPAC||ENS ROBERT A. ESCHER||S|
|9/15/1942||SBD-3||03362||VS-72||USS WASP (CV-7)||SAN CRISTOBAL||SOPAC||(SHIP SANK)|| |
|9/15/1942||SBD-3||03330||VS-72||USS WASP (CV-7)||SAN CRISTOBAL||SOPAC||(SHIP SANK)|| |
|9/16/1942||SBD-3||03243||VS-3||USS SARATOGA (CV-3)||ESPIRITU SANTO||SOPAC||ENS C. NEWTON||U|
|9/17/1942||SBD-3||4669||VMSB-231|| || ||SOPAC||LT A. SMITH||M|
|9/17/1942||F4F-4||5191||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/17/1942||SBD-3||4629||VS-72||USS HORNET (CV-8)|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/17/1942||F4F-4||5230||VF-10||HAWAII||HAWAII||ECENPAC||ENS GERALD V. DAVIS||D|
|9/17/1942||OS2N-1||01324||VMS-3||ST. THOMAS V.I.|| ||CENLANT|| || |
|9/18/1942||SBD-3||03347||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC||LT THOMAS||M|
|9/19/1942||SNJ-4||10123||MAG-24||EWA||HAWAII||ECENPAC||2NDLT CHARLES H. HYDE, JR.||M|
|9/19/1942||SBD-4||10616||VS-5||USS ENTERPRISE (CV-6)||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC||ENS FINK||U|
|9/19/1942||J2F-2A||1204|| ||VIRGIN ISLANDS|| ||CENLANT|| || |
|9/20/1942||SBD-3||03293||VMSB-231|| || ||SOPAC||CAPT IDEN||D|
|9/20/1942||SBD-3||03294||VMSB-231|| || ||SOPAC||LT ZUBER||S|
|9/21/1942||OS2U-3||5344||CL-7||USS RALEIGH (CL-7)|| ||CENPAC||ENS JOHN W. GEORGE||U|
|9/21/1942||J2F-5||00689||VJ-4||GUANTANAMO BAY||CUBA||CENLANT|| || |
|9/21/1942||PBY-5A||7247||VP-92||STOCKING ISLAND||BERMUDA||NORLANT||ENS R.J. FINNIE||U|
|9/22/1942||J2F-5||00671||VS-1||(DET 14)|| ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/22/1942||OS2N-1||01373|| ||GUANTANAMO BAY||CUBA||CENLANT|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||2410||VP-11|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||2419||VP-11|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||F4F-4||03418||VF-10|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||2450||VP-11|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||SBD-3||03312||VMSB-241|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||2388||VP-11|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||04430||VP-23|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/23/1942||PBY-5||04429||VP-23|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/24/1942||PBY-3||0884||VP-32||GUANTANAMO BAY||CUBA||CENLANT|| || |
|9/27/1942||F4F-3||2515||VMF-111|| || ||SOPAC|| || |
|9/27/1942||SBD-3||06641||VS-41||USS RANGER (CV-4)||OFF NORFOLK||CENLANT||ENS GEORGE F. DALTON||U|
|9/27/1942||PBY-5A||02949||FAW-2||PEARL||HAWAII||ECENPAC|| || |
|9/28/1942||PBY-5||04477||VP-61||NAZAN BAY|| ||NORPAC||ENS M.E. HUMPHREYS||S|
|9/28/1942||F4F-4||02136||VF-41||USS RANGER (CV-4)||OFF NORFOLK||CENLANT||LT T.A. GREEL||S|
|9/28/1942||SBD-3||03348||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC|| || |
|9/28/1942||SBD-3|| ||VMSB-231|| || || ||LT LESLIE||M|
|9/28/1942||F4F-4||5034||VF-41||USS RANGER (CV-4)||OFF NORFOLK||CENLANT||ENS B.N. MAGHEN||U|
|9/29/1942||F4F-4||11729||VGS-12||USS COPAHEE (ACV-12)||NEW CALEDONIA||SOPAC||2NDLT SIMPSON||S|
|9/29/1942||OS2U-3||5342||CL-5||USS MILWAUKEE (CL-5)||RECIFE||BRAZIL|| || |
|9/29/1942||PBY-5||2382||VP-81|| || ||CENLANT||LCDR THOMAS B. HALEY||S|
|9/29/1942||SBD-3||06535||VMSB-241||USS COPAHEE (ACV-12)||NEW CALEDONIA||SOPAC||2NDLT G.H. ELLIOTT||D|
|9/29/1942||F4F-4||5185||VF-5||GUADALCANAL|| ||SOPAC||ENS SHOEMAKER||U|
|9/29/1942||SBD-3||06560||VGS-29||USS SANTEE (ACV-29)||OFF BERMUDA||NORLANT|| || |
|9/29/1942||SOC-3||1089||CL-46||USS PHOENIX (CL-46)|| ||SW PAC|| || |
|9/30/1942||PBY-5A||05039||VP-24|| ||HAWAII||ECENPAC|| || |
|9/30/1942||SBD-3||4673||VMSB-232|| ||GUADALCANAL||SOPAC|| || |
To order reports on any of these that were accidents, go to Order Accident Reports
For general notes on using these databases click here
Also see Action Code List for the meaning of Action or USN acronyms page for meaning of general abbreviations.